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Died on this day in 1265 aged 57 Simon de Montfort (my toy,wikipedia). Married Eleanor, daughter of King John. Lead the revolt against Henry III in the second barons war, and was for a year de-facto King before forces loyal to the King killed him and took the country back. During this time he called two famous parliaments. The first stripped the King of unlimited authority, the second included ordinary citizens from the towns; which leads him to be regarded as the father of parliamentary democracy although this was a long way from what we have now.

Born on this day in 1713 to Ernest Saxe-Hildburghausen I, Duke of Saxe-Hildhurghausen and Sophia ? , Countess of Erbach-Erbach, Princess Elizabeth-Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Charlotte who married George III.
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3rd August (yesterday, oops; also the entry for 1st August was a)mangled and b)a bit wrong and has been edited).

Died on this day in 1568 aged 23 Elizabeth of Valois (my toy,wikipedia). Married Philip II of Spain as his third wife (Mary I was his second), she was 14 and he was much older. Elizabeth was an amateur painter of some skill.

Born on this day in 1491 to William Julich-Heimbach IV, Duke of Julich-Berg and Sibylle of Brandenburg, Maria of Julich-Berg (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Anne of Cleves. Maria inherited the duchy of Julich-Berg which was merged with Cleves on her marriage. She was a strict Catholic, unlike her husband who tried to find a middle path between Protestant and Catholic during the reformation.
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Died on this day in 1100 aged 44 King William II of England (my toy,wikipedia). William died after being shot with an arrow whilst hunting, possibly murdered to put his brother Henry on the throne (in which case it worked), possibly an accident. He kept the Scots out of England but didn't gain control of Scotland and despite invading twice didn't manage to take over Wales.

Born on this day in 1424 to King Rene I of Naples and Isabella Lorraine , Duchess of Lorraine, John Valois-Anjou II, Duke of Anjou (my toy,wikipedia). Brother of Margaret who married Henry VI. John spent much of his reign attempting to get Naples back, which didn't work.
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Died on this day in 1137 aged 55 King Louis VI of France (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Margaret who married Henry the young King, son of Henry II. Louis spent most of his reign fighting various other people who wanted to be in charge of France, including of course the English (who were Normans). He was reasonably successful at this. He died of dysentery because in the 12th century even being King couldn't buy you a cure.

Born on this day in 1713 to Ferdinand II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel and Princess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Charles Guelph I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Caroline who married George IV. Charles tried (unsuccessfully) to improve the finances of the Duchy and when he failed his son took over. He founded what is now the Technical University of Brunswick.
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Died on this day in 1137 aged 55 King Louis VI of France (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Margaret who married King Stephen. Louis spent most of his reign fighting various other people who wanted to be in charge of France, including of course the English (who were Normans). He was reasonably successful at this. He died of dysentery because in the 12th century even being King couldn't buy you a cure.

Born on this day in 1713 to Ferdinand II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel and Princess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Charles Guelph I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Caroline who married George IV. Charles tried (unsuccessfully) to improve the finances of the Duchy and when he failed his son took over. He founded what is now the Technical University of Brunswick.
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Died on this day in 1900 aged 55 Alfred Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (my toy,wikipedia). Son of Queen Victoria. Alfred was in the Navy, beginning as a Midshipman and working his way up to Rear-Admiral (probably that was easier for him than for most Midshipmen...). He succeeded his uncle as Duke of S-C & G as his older brother had renounced his place in the succession for the Dukedom (and would in time be King).

Born on this day in 1601 to Louis Hesse-Darmstadt V, Landrgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Magdalene of Brandenburg, Anne of Hess Darmstadt (my toy,wikipedia). Grandmother of George I.
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Died on this day in 1504 aged 69 Thomas Stanley (my toy,wikipedia), married (secondly) Margaret Beaufort, mother (by her first husband) of Henry VII. IIRC (sorry, writing in hurry, wiki entry is long) he is the "late" lord Stanley (model, clearly, for the late lord Frey in A Song of Ice and Fire in at least *that* regard, he didn't have loads of wives) being as he like to show up late to battles and join the winning side.

Born on this day in 1832 to Oswald Smith and Henrietta Hodgson, Frances Smith (my toy,wikipedia). Great grand-mother of Elizabeth II. Frances and Oswald are so far my only Smiths.
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Read:
Epic Measures, Jeremy N Smith. A biography of the man who made http://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/ happen. The biography is interesting in parts and dull in others, the data visualization is kinda cool.

Reading:
Do Not Taunt the Octopus. Mira Grant. A Newsflesh Novella. POV Dr Abbey, squee. Only just started

Next:
Well, I bought all the Bujold fantasy (and then renamed the files to have the numbers in them... grrr). And then I saw that the Toby Day series (Seanan) was finally (finally!) available in UK ebook, so I bought all of *that* too. That was a bit of an ebook spending spree... so methinks I shall read, er, some of that next then. Also still got Crusades Through Arab Eyes to read. And should probably clear puppy crap off my ereader and see what else I've got hanging around.
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Died on this day in 1032 aged 46 Constance of Arles (my toy,wikipedia). Grandmother of Matilda, who married William I. Seems to have spent a lot of time quarreling with her sons, which is a lot more dangerous when they have armies than for regular teenage stroppyness.

Born on this day in 1676 to Frederick Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Magdalena of Saxe-Weissenfels, Frederick II of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (my toy,wikipedia).
Grandfather of George III. Funded his spending habits by renting his army out, unfortunately at one point to France which was at war the the HRE (which Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was part of). Married his first cousin and had 19 children.
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Died on this day in 1158 aged 24 Geoffrey Plantagenet , Count of Nantes (my toy,wikipedia). Son of Matilda, who wasn't quite Queen. He attempted to abduct Eleanor of Aquitaine and force her to marry him (he failed, she later married his older brother Henry II).

Born on this day in 1462 to Charles Valois , Duke of Orleans and Maria of Cleves, King Louis XII of France (my toy,wikipedia). Married his second cousin *twice removed* Mary Tudor (sister of Henry VIII), she was 18, he was 52; she was his third wife. His first wife had been Joan, the daughter of Louis XI, his second Anne the widow of Charles VIII. In order to divorce his first wife he claimed that she was deformed so he couldn't consummate the marriage, or that he was prevented from consummating the marriage by witchcraft... this was presumably all bollocks (he just wanted to marry Anne) but the pope was On His Side (the annulment was eventually granted on the grounds that the marriage had been forced). Joan became a nun. Anne and Louis had no sons, only two daughters, one of whom he married to Francis I his heir presumptive. After Anne's death Louis married Mary in the hope of having a son but died only 3 months later (of over exertion in the bedchamber, allegedly).
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Died on this day in 1693 aged 36 Ulrika of Denmark (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter of the King of Denmark and Norway, Ulrika married the King of Sweden; her brother married Queen Anne. She was kind a charitable, and had almost no political influence since her mother-in-law held almost all of the power and status of Queen and she was sidelined.

Born on this day in 1400 to Thomas le Despenser and Constance of York, Isabel le Despenser (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of Edmund of Langley (one of Edward III's many sons), Grand-mother of Anne Neville who married Richard III. Isabel married (in series, not parallel) two cousins, both called Richard Beauchamp (one the Earl of Worcester, the other the Earl of Warwick), which is rather confusing really. Her two children from her second marriage married two siblings (children of Richard Neville) which is probably incest-by-affinity according to the rules then in use, but apparently these rules weren't abided by.
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Died on this day in 1182 aged 46 Marie Blois I, Countess of Boulogne (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter of King Stephen. Marie was a nun, and eventually Abbess of Romsey, from where she was abducted and forced into marriage by Matthew of Alsace. 10 years later this marriage was annulled, and Marie once again became a nun.

Born on this day in 1797 to Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter-in-law of George III (she married the Duke of Cambridge when she was 20 and he was 44), grandmother of Mary of Teck who married George V, also great-grand-daughter of George II (incest! yay!). Augusta lived mostly in Hanover, where her husband was viceroy for his brothers who were both Kings of both England and Hanover.
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Died on this day in 1565 aged 20 Carlos (my toy,wikipedia). Son of Philip of Spain who was married to Queen Mary I (but by a different wife). Carlos suffered a severe head injury, and his life was saved by Trepanation, but afterwards his personality was very different. He attempted to flee to the Netherlands but was caught and put under arrest, and he died shortly afterwards.

Born on this day in 1689 to Prince George of Denmark and Queen Anne of England, William Oldenburg , Duke of Gloucester (my toy,wikipedia). William was the only child of Queen Anne to survive infancy, but his health was never good and he died aged only 11.

Wow, that was a depressing sort of a day.
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Died on this day in 1596 aged 70 Henry Carey (my toy,wikipedia). Son of Mary Boleyn, sister of Anne (wife of Henry VIII). Henry was appointed Lieutenant General in charge of putting down the Rising of the North by Queen Elizabeth. It has been speculated (but is unlikely) that Henry was the illegitimate son of Henry VIII.

Born on this day in 1647 to Edward Count Palatine and Anna Gonzaga, Luise of the Palatinate (my toy,wikipedia). Great grand-daughter of James I&VI, although as a Catholic she was excluded from the succession.
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Died on this day in 1274 aged 30 King Henry I of Navarre (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Isabella, who married Edward II. As well as being King of Navarre he was Count of Champagne and Brie (mmmm, brie).

Born on this day in 1210 to King John of England and Isabella of Angouleme, Joan of England (my toy,wikipedia). Joan was intended to marry Hugh X of Lusignan, who her mother had rejected previously, but after the death of John Isabella married Hugh and Joan went back to England and was married to the King of Scotland, she was 10.
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I am still reading Epic Measures, it is quite interesting, mostly a biography of the guy who decided we needed more Evidence for who dies of what than a review of the answers he discovered (so far). It's not as gripping as fiction, which may be why I'm not done with it yet.

Next:I got a Seanan novella, so I'll clearly be reading that next ;-p I need to think about getting books for Holiday Reading, I'm not sure what. The Locus best-of-year list might be a good place to start? Or I thought I might read Bujold's fantasy series, which I haven't read any of, even though I lovelovelove the Vorkosiverse. I've got the new Leckie and the new Walton on pre-order.
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Died on this day in 1612 aged 50 Edward Seymour , Viscount Beauchamp (my toy,wikipedia). Son of Catherine Grey, sister of Jane. Edward Seymour was born in the tower, after his mother was arrested for marrying his father against the wishes of the Queen (his legitimacy was questioned as she could provide no proof of their secret marriage). According to the terms of Henry VIII's will Edward was ahead of James (I & VI) in the succession, since Henry had placed his younger sister ahead, but the English parliament preferred James.

Born on this day in 1824 to Thomas Lyon-Bowes and Charlotte Grimstead, Claude Bowes-Lyon (my toy,wikipedia). Great-grand-father of Elizabeth II.
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Died on this day in 1398 aged 24 Roger Mortimer , 4th Earl of March (my toy,wikipedia). Father of Anne who marries the 3rd Earl of Cambridge (below); grandson of Edward III.

Born on this day in 1375 to Edmund of Langley Plantagenet , 1st Duke of York and Isabella of Castile, Richard York , 3rd Earl of Cambridge (my toy,wikipedia). Grandson of Edward III, Grandfather of Edward IV and Richard III. Richard was not Duke of York because his elder brother was, but since the brother died childless (after him) his son became Duke of York.

And that's two people who were clearly an important part of the dynastic arguments of the Wars of the Roses, which I don't really feel like unpicking right now.
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19th July (I ran a marathon, much too tired to think after)

Died on this day in 1687 aged 48 Laura Martinozzi (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Mary of Modena, who married James II & VII. She was one of several nieces of Cardinal Mazarrin, for whom he arranged advantageous matches. Laura married the Duke of Modena aged 16.

Born on this day in 1822 to Adolphus Hanover , Duke of Cambridge and Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel, Princess Augusta of Cambridge (my toy,wikipedia) . Grand-daughter of George III. Married her first cousin.
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Died on this day in 1038 aged 18 Gunhilda of Denmark (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter of Cnut and Emma of Normandy (who was also wife of Aethelred the Unready, and sister of the grandfather of William I). She married the Emperor Henry III before he was emperor, and died before he was emperor, whilst on campaign to solve some territorial dispute.

Born on this day in 1501 to King Philip I of Castile and Queen Joanna of Castile, Isabella of Austria (my toy,wikipedia). Niece of Catherine of Aragon. Married the King of Denmark, Sweden and Norway when she was 14. Isabella grew up in the Netherlands, and moved to Denmark when she married. After her husband was deposed he and Isabella went first to the Netherlands and then Germany, attempting to gather support for regaining his throne, she died of illness before any attempt was made.
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Died on this day in 924 aged 50 King Edward the Elder (my toy,wikipedia). Edward extended the control of Wessex over Mercia, Essex and East Anglia

Born on this day in 1626 to Frederick V Elector Palatine and Elizabeth Stuart, the Winter Queen, Henriette of the Palatinate (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of James the VI and I and Great Aunt of George I. Henriette married the brother of the Prince or Transylvania in April 1651 and died suddenly in September, shortly followed by her husband, presumably that was illness rather than vampires.
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Died on this day in 1557 aged 41 Anne of Cleves (my toy,wikipedia). Wife of Henry VIII. The marriage was masterminded by Thomas Cromwell, and as the marriage did not work out that was it for Thomas Cromwell. Anne put up little fight against the proposed annulment of her marriage, and afterwards was given a large amount of property and was regarded as "the King's beloved sister", she did less well under Mary (although she officially converted to Catholicism), and after falling out with the Queen lived quietly in the country. After arriving to marry Henry Anne never again left England. She was the last of Henry's wives to die, outliving Catherine Parr by 9 years.

Born on this day in 1517 to Charles Brandon , 1st Duke of Suffolk and Mary Tudor, Lady Frances Brandon (my toy,wikipedia). Frances was the mother of Lady Jane Grey, and the daughter of Mary (sister of Henry VIII - when Jane's claim to the throne). Frances was alive at the time Jane was announced as Queen,but Edward VI decided that she should be passed over in favour of Jane and Frances had to renounce her claim. After Jane was beaten by Mary Frances pleaded with the Queen for her and her husband's freedom, and actually managed to get it, shortly after Francis' husband was involved in another revolt against the Queen and was executed for treason (as was Jane, although she wasn't involved). Francis continued to live at court in reasonable favour (and under close observation) with her two surviving daughters. She made a second marriage to her master of horse, which at least put her (and her claim to the throne) out of the reach of other hopeful claimants.
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Finished:

Two books this week! (because I was nearly finished one last week)

Station Eleven:
Post-apocalyptic. Basically just people being people, having small adventures, putting life back together; with flashbacks to pre-apocalyptic lives of the same people. I liked it.

The Martian (Weir, Andy). A guy gets stuck on Mars. I thought at the start that the whole book would be just this guy stuck on Mars (and that that would be very dull) but there are other bits too, so it's not just this one guy (some of the other characters are women, with names, and exciting careers in NASA, but this really is a book about this one guy stuck on Mars). I think it strikes the right balance (or at least *a* right balance) between boring tedium and EXTREME PERIL, and I found it very hard to put down.

Reading:Epic Measures (Jeremy N Smith) this is a biography of a guy who decided that What We Need (tm) is a big database of what kills and hurts who when where why how etc. As yet there is not much of an answer to the questions... interesting but not as gripping as stories with SPACE and PERIL.

Next: Oh, I don't know. Just started this one anyway.
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Died on this day in 1445 aged 41 Joan Beaufort (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of John of Gaunt (son of Edward III). Joan married the King of Scotland, who was assassinated whilst their son was still a child; Joan was not permitted to be the child king's regent (being English and a woman) but remained in charge of his person. Joan and her second husband attempted to overthrow the governor of Stirling castle (I'm not quite sure why) after which Joan was arrested.

Born on this day in 1750 to Ernest , Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Princess Sophie of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Franz Wettin , Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Queen Victoria. Franz fought against Napoleon's armies when he was young, later he became the Duke and amassed a huge collection of books.
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Died on this day in 1551 aged 15 Henry Brandon , 2nd Duke of Suffolk (my toy,wikipedia) Step-son of Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII (well, she was dead at the point he was born, so maybe not quite "step-son"). He succeeded to the dukedom while still a child, and died not long after of the sweating sickness (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweating_sickness has some speculation on exactly *what* that was) he was succeeded in turn by his brother, who died only an hour later and thus holds the record for holding a peerage for the shortest period of time (not such a good record to have).

Born on this day in 1932 to Berthold , Margrave of Baden and Princess Theodora of Greece and Denmark, Princess Margarete of Baden (my toy,wikipedia). Great grand-daughter of George I. Margarete grew up in Germany, trained as a nurse in London, and then married a Yugoslav prince, and was thereafter a champion of Serbian charities. They live on a fruit farm in England, and divorced in 1991.
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Died on this day in 1966 aged 82 Princess Beatrice of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of Queen Victoria. Beatrice married into the Spanish royal family, and then lost practically everything during the Spanish civil war (including one of her three children).

Born on this day in 1426 to Richard de Beauchamp and Isabel le Despenser, Anne Beauchamp , 16th Countess of Warwick (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Anne Neville, wife of Richard II; Anne's husband was the Warwick the Kingmaker. The Earldom of Warwick was hers by right, but her husband was in charge on account of married women not being able to own things; after his death her two sons-in-law (Clarance and Gloucester) argued about how the Warwick's stuff should be divided, including stuff that was by rights Anne's stuff which is all a bit shit really. She outlived both her daughters, and all of her sons-in-law (Anne married twice), and all the land ended up with Henry VII.
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Died on this day in 1989 aged 92 Prince Wolfgang of Hesse-Kassel (my toy,wikipedia). Great grand son of Queen Victoria. Claimed to be the Crown Prince of Finland, I failed to figure out what is going on there, as Finland never really *had* a monarchy.

Born on this day in 1905 to King George V of the the United Kingdom and Mary of Teck, Prince John of the United Kingdom (my toy,wikipedia). John had epilepsy and possibly also autism or some intellectual disability (the early 20th century was not so good for accurate diagnoses). He grew up away from his family on the estate at Sandringham and his illness was concealed from the public until after his death. A film about his life "The Lost Prince" was made in 2003, I quite liked it.
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Oops.

July 11th

Died on this day in 1174 aged 38 King Amalric I of Jerusalem (my toy,wikipedia). Half brother of Geoffrey, who married Matilda who tried to be Queen and was mother of Henry II. Amalric first married Agnes of Courtenay, but he was forced to annul this marriage when he succeeded his brother as king (although their children continued to be viewed as legitimate), he subsequently married the daughter of the Byzantine emperor.

Born on this day in 1751 to Frederick Prince of Wales and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Princess Caroline of Great Britain (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of George II. Caroline was 15 when she married the King of Denmark, who did not like her very much. After many unhappy years she began an affair with the royal doctor, this lead to them both being arrested, eventually Caroline was divorced from the King and her lover executed; King George III negotiated her freedom and she lived out her life in his German properties at Celle.
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Died on this day in 1109 aged 42 Eupraxia of Kiev (my toy,wikipedia). Married the Emperor Henry IV, father of Henry V who married Matilda (or maybe Maud); the marriage was not happy and allegedly Henry forced her to participate in orgies. Eventually she got away from him, in the end returning to Kiev where she was briefly a nun.

Born on this day in 1747 to King Frederick V of Denmark and Princess Louise of Great Britain, Princess Caroline of Denmark (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of George II. She married William, who became Landgrave of Hesse, but the marriage was unhappy. Worse, she spent years in exile after the French invaded Hesse (or maybe better, she spent that time in a different place to William).
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Died on this day in 1524 aged 57 Sibylle of Brandenburg (my toy,wikipedia). Grandmother of Anne of Cleves (briefly) wife of Henry VIII. Sibylle had only one child, a girl, who married the Duke of Cleves; through this marriage the duchies of Cleves and Julich-Berg were united.

Born on this day in 1511 to Magnus I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg and Catherine of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg (my toy,wikipedia). Grandmother of Anne of Denmark, who married James VI and I. Dorothea married the King of Denmark, and never learned Danish (I guess it is hard?). Whilst Queen she was partly responsible for a law banning the arranged engagements of children. After the death of her husband she wanted to marry his brother, this was Not Allowed, and caused great tension with her children; after she attempted to arrange a marriage for one of her other sons that her son the King disagreed with she was exiled from the court.
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Still reading Station 11.

Have pre-ordered Jo Walton's latest (Philosopher Kings, sequel to the Just City) which might or might not be next depending how fast I read Station 11.
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Died on this day in 975 aged 32 King Edgar the Peaceful (my toy,wikipedia). It was during Edgar's rule that the Benedictine Rule was introduced to English monasteries.

Born on this day in 1640 to King Charles I of England and Henrietta of France, Henry Stuart , Duke of Gloucester (my toy,wikipedia). Henry was captured at the end of the civil war, and held in the tower whilst his brother Charles escaped to France. He was later released, but when his mother basically chucked him out of Paris on account of how during his time in captivity he had become a staunch Protestant, he then went to fight with the Spanish, where he met the Prince of Conde who shared his dislike of the Catholic church. After the restoration of the monarchy Henry went back to London (I guess he got on better with his brother than his mother?) but died of smallpox the same year.
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Died on this day in 1537 aged 16 Madeleine of Valois (my toy,wikipedia). Married James V of Scotland, who was the grandfather (through a different wife) of James VI & I. Madeleine was the daughter of the French King, she always had fragile health and was sent to live in warm parts of France to keep her away from nasty chills that might make her ill; moving to Scotland proved disastrous for her health and she died only months later.

Born on this day in 1771 to King Christian VII of Denmark and Princess Caroline of Great Britain, Princess Louise of Denmark (my toy,wikipedia). Great grand-daughter of George II, although officially recognized as the daughter of Christian, it is likely that she was actually the daughter of her mother's lover Johann; this did not affect her official position at court, although it may have been a motivating factor in marrying her to a Danish Prince who himself had strong ties to the throne so that any children they would have would *certainly* have a claim, supposing her (half) brother didn't have any children.
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Died on this day in 1189 aged 56 King Henry II of England (my toy,wikipedia). Henry got English Common Law on a firm footing, and ruled most of France.

Born on this day in 1332 to William de Burgh and Maud of Lancaster, Elizabeth de Burgh (my toy,wikipedia). Married Lionel, second son of Edward III. They had a daughter, who married a Mortimer, and it is through this connection that the House of York claimed the throne, being that Lionel was an older son than John of Gaunt, but having the line pass through a woman was not clearly allowed at the time (you could argue forever about this sort of thing, or you could resolve it with a BIG ARMY, which alas, they did)
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Died on this day in 1525 aged 32 Johann of Brandenburg-Ansbach (my toy,wikipedia). Married the grand-daughter of the Duke of Orleans who was the second husband of Isabella whose first husband was Richard II.

Born on this day in 1321 to King Edward II of England and Isabella of France, Joan of the Tower (my toy,wikipedia). Married David II of Scotland when she was 7, the marriage was not very happy and they had no children.
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Happy sod-off-colonies day ;-p

Died on this day in 1814 aged 50 Prince Emich of Leiningen (my toy,wikipedia). Emich's second wife married (after his death) Prince Edward of Kent and was the mother of Queen Victoria. So, sort of Victoria's step-father, only he was dead before her mother married her father. His second wife was his first wife's nice, which is a bit eurgh. I want to be able to draw A NICE GRAPH, but then along come people who do THINGS LIKE THIS and suddenly it is a very messy graph indeed (the whole enormous mess, only a bit cut down is at http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~naath/bigGraph.png which is just too hard to really look at. I'm sure some of the generation-skipping arrows are indicators of TERRIBLE ERRORS but mostly when I look them up they turn out to be TRUE and then I get disheartened and stop thinking that "messy graph" and "wrong graph" should live in the same headspace, but if anyone wants to point out TERRIBLE ERRORS on it then please do feel free).

Born on this day in 1473 to Henry III, Landgrave of Upper Hesse and Anna of Saxony, Matilda of Hesse (my toy,wikipedia). Grandmother of Anne of Cleves (wife, briefly, of Henry VIII). Matilda married Duke John of Cleves after he had had *63* children with various mistresses and been nicknames "the babymaker". Together they had 3 children, the eldest (John) succeeded him as Duke of Cleves and was the father of Anne. Cleves was at the time a part of the Holy Roman Empire, the territory that was the Duchy of Cleves is now partly in Germany and partly in the Netherlands.
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Died on this day in 1642 aged 67 Marie de'Medici (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Henrietta, wife of Charles I. Marie was the second wife of the Henry IV of France, and regent for her son after Henry was assassinated. After her son came of age and asserted his own right to rule Marie spent years exiled to Blois. She reconciled with Louis only after being the figurehead for a revolt, but after a bit she attempted to get ride of Richelieu, which resulted in her fleeing the country.

Born on this day in 1709 to King Frederick I of Prussia and Sophia of Hanover, Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of George I. She was (by marriage) the Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, and expended much time/money/effort making Bayreuth really nice. Bayreuth is now famous for the Wagner festival, although he was born in 1813, so I assume they never met.
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Finished:
Long Utopia. PTerry and S. Baxter.

Not, I think, as good as the previous. And sadly now PTerry is dead :( I enjoyed it all the same.

Reading:

Station Eleven. Just started, not really got an opinion yet.

Next:

uhhhhh, dunno.
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No deaths. Huzzah.

Born on this day in 1903 to King Haakon VII of Norway and Maud of Wales, King Olav V of Norway (my toy,wikipedia). Grandson of Edward VII. Olav was a very popular King, having been involved in Norwegian defense during WWII.
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Died on this day in 1348 aged 15 Joan of England (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter of Edward III. Joan was on route to marry the son of the King of Castile when she died of the Black Death.

Born on this day in 1868 to King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and Alexandra of Denmark, Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom (my toy,wikipedia). Victoria never married, possibly because her parents wanted to keep her around to keep them company (urgh, parents), although possibly just because she didn't want to. She lived in Buckinghamshire where she became president of the local horticultural society.
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Died on this day in 1126 aged 70 Cecilia of Normandy (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter of William I. Cecilia entered a convent at a young age (presumably that was her parents' idea, not hers) and went on to become the Abbess of Holy Trinity.

Born on this day in 1478 to King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, John Prince of Asturias (my toy,wikipedia). Brother of Catherine of Aragon (wife of Henry VIII). John would have been King of Aragon and Castile, but he died before his parents, the kingdom was inherited by his sister and her husband Philip, the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian, which is how the Hapsburgs came to be in charge of Spain
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Died on this day in 1509 aged 66 Lady Margaret Beaufort (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Henry VII; Margaret had Henry when she only 13 years old and never had another child although she was married twice more, she was an influential figure in her son's fight for the throne and after he became King.

Born on this day in 1482 to King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, Maria of Aragon (my toy,wikipedia). Sister of Catherine who married Henry VIII, Maria married the King of Portugal after the death of her sister Isabella who had previously been married to him (apparently marriages to the widow/er of one's deceased siblings was more common than I thought...)
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27th June

Died on this day in 1195 aged 63 King Sancho VI of Navarre (my toy,wikipedia). Father of Berengaria, who married Richard I. Sancho married Sancha the daughter of the King of Castile, presumably to seal some peace deal or other. Wikipedia has "responsible for bringing his Kingdom into the Political orbit of Europe", I'm not sure what that means.

Born on this day in 1731 to Prince Frederick of Stolberg-Gedern and Louise of Nassau-Saarbrucken, Princess Caroline of Stolberg-Geden (my toy,wikipedia). Grandmother of Adelaide who married William IV. Caroline married her first cousin Christian.


28th June
Died on this day in 1757 aged 70 Sophia of Hanover (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter of George I. Sophia got on very badly with her brother George II and with he husband (and cousin) Kind Frederick I of Prussia, but much better with her children including Frederick II "the great" of Prussia.

Born on this day in 1491 to King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, King Henry VIII of England (my toy,wikipedia). Mostly famous for getting bored of his wives... and for reforming the church in England so he could a)get an annulment and b)take all the church's money.
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Died on this day in 1830 aged 67 King George IV of the United Kingdom (my toy,wikipedia). George IV was Regent for his father before he was King. He was known for his extravagant lifestyle, and his hatred of his wife (who he had been forced to marry); he wasn't very involved in actually running the country. He had one daughter, who died in childbirth and so was succeeded by his brother William.

Born on this day in 1398 to King Ferdinand I of Aragon and Eleanor of Alburquerque, King John II of Aragon (my toy,wikipedia. Grandfather of Catherine of Aragon (first wife of Henry VIII). Wikipedia says he was very memorable... but not really *why*.
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Died on this day in 1752 aged 44 Charles Mecklenburg-Strelitz , Duke of Mecklenburg (my toy,wikipedia). Father of Charlotte who married George III, and 9 other children. Mecklenburg-Strelitz was in Northern Germany.

Born on this day in 1328 to William Montagu and Catherine Grandison, William Montacute , 2nd Earl of Salisbury (my toy,wikipedia). Married Joan of Kent (mother of Richard II). However at the time she had already married (secretly) Thomas Holland, so William's marriage to her was annulled.
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Half way through the year, a reading retrospective. (I started in February though)

James S A Corey : Nemesis Games
Yasmin Alibhai-Brown : Exotic England
Most of Buffy season 9
Naomi Novik: Uprooted
Thomas Olde Heuvelt: The Day the World Turned Upside Down (novella, translated)
Mira Grant: Rolling in the Deep (novella)
Altered Perceptions (collected essays)
The how not to die book. (non fiction)
Cixin Liu:Three Body Problem (translated)
Addison, Katherine: Goblin Emperor
Okorafor,Nnedi : Lagoon
Jo Walton: What makes this book so great. (essays)
Kameron Hurley: The Seams Between the Stars. (short story)
Terry Pratchett :Mrs Bradshaws' Handbook to the Ankh Morpork and Sto Plains Hygienic Railway. (pretending to be non fiction)
Wilson, G Willow: Alif the Unseen
Lyndsey,Anna: Girl in the Dark (autobiographical)
Kameron Hurley:Rapture
Genevive Griffin:Dance Til Dawn (short).
Walton, Jo: The Just City
Sardar, Ziauddin : Mecca: The Sacred City (non fiction)
Walton, Jo :Small Change Trilogy (3 books)
Greta Christina:Bending (erotica)
Mary Roach : Gulp (nonfiction)

That's 25 things; some short, some long. Of which I make 2 (things, 4 authors) written entirely by white men writing in English (which is of minor interest to me).

So far I think Uprooted is my favorite. And I'm probably going to put 3 body problem first for the Hugo.
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Read: I finished the Corey whilst away in the 16th century. This one turned out to have less gross in it and more politics. Which is fine, I like both. I do like this series, and if you like unfinished series and SF/noir-detective/horror genre-bending ... things... then I think you might too, but start at the start. This one ends in rather a cliff hanger, which possibly means that if you start now you'll have ages sitting on the edge of your seat (I keep saying "no more starting unfinished serieses, but haha no)

Reading: Long Utopia. Pratchett and Baxter. Not far into it yet, seems more-of-the-same. The series begins with the Long Earth, probably start there. It's interesting, although it isn't funny. Also Pratchett is now regrettably dead so I don't know if there will be more or not (I haven't got to the end to find out if it is an actual *end* yet)

Next: Probably Station 11. I hear good things.
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Died on this day in 1291 aged 68 Eleanor of Provence (my toy,wikipedia). Wife of Henry III, whom she had never met before the wedding. She was unpopular in England, largely because of her and her family's influence with the King, she was at one point attacked in London and retaliated with heavy taxation... which no doubt made her even less popular.

Born on this day in 1314 to William I, Count of Hainaut and Joan of Valois, Philippa of Hainault (my toy,wikipedia). Wife of Edward III, who she married by proxy before meeting... together they had 14 children, and somewhere she found time to sometimes be regent for Edward whilst he was away.
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Died on this day in 1938 aged 75 Cecilia Cavendish-Bentinck (my toy,wikipedia). Grandmother of the current Queen.

Born on this day in 1894 to King George V of the the United Kingdom and Mary of Teck, King Edward VIII of Great Britain (my toy,wikipedia). Abdicated the throne to marry the divorced Wallis Simpson. Edward was a Nazi sympathiser, so it's probably for the best that he quit being King. For a while he was the governor of the Bahamas, which he seems to have hated.
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Died on this day in 1476 aged 48 Catherine of Brittany (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of Joan, who married Henry IV (not Catherine's grandfather), daughter of the Duke of Orleans, she married the Prince of Orange.

Born on this day in 1000 to Richard Normandy II, Duke of Normandy and Judith of Brittany, Robert Normandy I, Duke of Normandy (my toy,wikipedia). Father of William I. He became Duke of Normandy after the death of his older brother, which he possibly caused. He proceeded to get the whole of Normandy excommunicated after throwing the Archbishop of Rouen out... he later reconciled with the church, and died whilst returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, leaving the 8 year old William to be Duke.

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