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Died on this day in 1705 aged 81 George Welf , Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg (my toy,wikipedia). Father of Sophia who married George I. George contrived to actually marry (morganetically, meaning their children would not inherit) his mistress, which presumably is a happier state of affairs than having to marry someone you have never met.

Born on this day in 1837 to Alexander Wurttemberg , Duke of Wurttenburg and Claudine ? , Countess von Kis-Rhede, Francis Wurttemberg , Duke of Teck (my toy,wikipedia). Father of Mary who married George V. Francis's parents were married morganetically, so he was not a great catch; he eventually married his third cousin once removed who was in her thirties at the time and thus "getting on a bit" (oy!) and less of a catch. They lived in England on her civil-list (which probably wasn't called that at the time) income, but overspent rather and fled to the continent and the charity of other relatives (eventually they moved back)
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Died on this day in 1261 aged 74 Ela of Salisbury (my toy,wikipedia). Married William, illegitimate son of Henry II. She was the only child of the Earl of Salisbury, and thus his heir, at the point she married William she was a very wealthy woman.After William's death she founded a nunnery, and became a nun and later abess.

Born on this day in 1742 to Charles Mecklenburg-Strelitz , Duke of Mecklenburg and Princess Elizabeth-Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Ernest Mecklenburg-Strelitz , Duke of Mecklenburg (my toy,wikipedia). Brother of Charlotte who married George III. He tried twice (unsuccessfully) to marry wealthy heiresses, since he had run up enormous debts.
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Read:
Ashes of Honour
Chimes at Midnight
The Winter Long
The Curse of Chalion
Red Rose Chain (acquired from SF bookstore in Stockholm, lucky me)
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Died on this day in 1346 aged 50 King John of Bohemia (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Anne who married Richard II. Whilst being King of Bohemia John was not very Bohemian and not well liked in Bohemia; he spent much of his reign out of the country, leaving it in the hands of the Barons.

Born on this day in 1819 to Ernest Wettin I, Duke of Saxe Coburg Saalfield and Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (my toy,wikipedia). Husband (and first cousin) of Queen Victoria. Albert said of his position "I am very happy and contented; but the difficulty in filling my place with the proper dignity is that I am only the husband, not the master in the house." A position that only George (husband of Anne) had previously been in (Philip, husband of Mary, was declared King and also mostly absent from England; and Elizabeth had no husband whilst William-and-Mary ruled jointly). Such hardship, having a wife who is more important than you, blerch getoverit.
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Died on this day in 1482 aged 52 Margaret of Anjou (my toy,wikipedia). Wife of Henry VI; Margaret was a fierce partisan of her husband's and son's although Henry was too sick to do much and Edward too young. She was the Lancastrian leader, and was present at some of the battles. When she finally lost at Tewksbury she was taken captive and held prisoner until the King of France ransomed her, thereafter she lived in France.

Born on this day in 1617 to Sir Thomas Aylesbury and Anne Denman, Frances Aylesbury (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Anne Hyde who married James VII and II. Doesn't seem to have done much of anything really.
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Died on this day in 1507 aged 38 Cecily of York (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter of Edward IV. After Henry VII became King Cecily was married to a staunch Lancastrian, but remained in favour at court and became friendly with Margaret Beaufort. However after her husband died she remarried to one Thomas Kymbe whom she apparently selected as being unimportant enough not to draw the ire of the King and likely to make a nice husband - she was wrong about this and was banished to the Isle of Wight for daring to marry without royal permission.

Born on this day in 1113 to King Fulk of Jerusalem and Ermengarde of Maine, Geoffrey Plantagenet V, Count of Anjou (my toy,wikipedia). Married the Empress Matilda, father of Henry II; the marriage was not a happy one, but he did support her claim for the English throne.
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Died on this day in 1487 aged 60 Maria of Cleves (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Louis XII who was (briefly) married to Mary (sister-of-Henry) Tudor. Maria was a patron of letters, and a poet herself. After the death of her first husband she secretly married a gentleman of her chamber, because sometimes women get to pick there husbands.

Born on this day in 1712 to Frederick II of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Princess Magdalena of Anhalt-Zerbst, Sophie of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (my toy,wikipedia). Aunt of George III, or would have been had she not died as an infant (sorry, not many people today)
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Died on this day in 1485 aged 32 King Richard III of England (my toy,wikipedia). Richard helped his brother Edward take the throne, and was generally loyal. After Edward's death his young son Edward was now King and Richard was appointed Lord Protector (since Edward was only 12 and too young to rule); after some confusion Richard decided he was going to be King instead, declaring that Edward (IV)'s marriage was invalid so Edward (V) was a bastard and Richard was King, Edward (V) and his younger brother Richard (Duke of York) were then locked up in the tower (where they probably died, but no-one really has any clue how or when or why or anything like that, one of history's unsolved mysteries). Richard died at the battle of Bosworth, defeated by Henry Tudor (Henry VII), he left no legitimate children who might serve as a figurehead for the House of York to retake the throne, his niece Elizabeth of York (who was declared legitimate again) married Henry VII. And thus the Wars of the Roses finally ended.


No births today.
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Died on this day in 1813 aged 67 Sophia of Denmark (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of George II. Daughter of the King of Denmark she married the King of Sweden, to whom she was betrothed at the age of only 5, Sophia was not very social or fond of the lifestyle of the court and is often regarded as "cold" and "haughty"

Born on this day in 1765 to King George III of the United Kingdom and Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, King William IV of the United Kingdom (my toy,wikipedia). William lived for most of his adult life with his mistress the actress Dorothea Bland... and then he ran out of money and was made to marry Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen. He became king aged 64, making him the oldest person to ever become King, his reign was very short and he didn't do much of anything really.
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Died on this day in 1782 aged 1 Prince Alfred of Great Britain (my toy,wikipedia). Son of George III. Alfred died after being inoculated against smallpox

Born on this day in 1727 to George , Count of Erbach-Schonberg and Ferdinande of Stolberg-Geden, Karoline of Erbach-Schonberg (my toy,wikipedia). Great-grand-mother of Queen Victoria, which is apparently the only interesting thing about her.
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Read..
Dune
Late Eclipses
One Salt Sea (contains mermaids, was reading when saw the little mermaid
statue)
The Philosopher Kings (afterword says author spent much time in Copenhagen
national museum was there when finished reading it)
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Died on this day in 1245 aged 47 Ramon Barcelona IV, Count of Provence (my toy,wikipedia). Father of Eleanor, wife of Henry III. Known for his support of troubadors and his lavish entertaining (which he couldn't really afford).

Born on this day in 1596 to King James VI of Scotland & I of England and Anne of Denmark, Elizabeth Stuart, the Winter Queen (my toy,wikipedia). Very briefly Queen of Bohemia (thus "the Winter Queen"). After her husband was thrown out of Bohemia by the Hapsburgs, and since the Palatinate was now occupied by the Spanish, they lived in the Hague. After the death of her husband Elizabeth eventually managed to regain the Palatinate for their son, but she remained in the Hague. She moved back to England after the restoration of the monarchy and died there shortly after. Elizabeth is an important character in Neil Stephenson's Baroque cycle.
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Died on this day in 1873 aged 68 Charles II, Duke of Brunswick (my toy,wikipedia). Great-great-grand-child of George II. Charles was a rubbish Duke and after the July Revolution his brother William took over. Afterwards Charles lived mostly in Paris and London before moving to Geneva when war broke out between France and Germany.

Born on this day in 1406 Thomas de Ros (my toy,wikipedia). Married Eleanor Beauchamp, whose step-sister Anne was the mother of Isabel and Anne Neville. Thomas fought in the hundred years war in France, and died when he fell in the Seine and drowned.
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Died on this day in 1153 aged 24 Eustace Blois IV, Count of Boulogne (my toy,wikipedia). Eldest son of King Stephen. He was Stephen's heir, but died before Stephen (in any case the outcome of Stephen's war with Matilda meant that Stephen was succeeded by her son Henry)

Born on this day in 1786 to Franz Wettin , Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Aughusta Wettin , Countess of Ebersdorf, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Queen Victoria. Her husband Prince Edward died shortly after their daughter's birth and Victoria went on to live in Kensington palace. She did not get on at all well with King William, who managed to live long enough for Victoria to turn 18 and inherit herself; Victoria shunned her mother until after the birth of her first child.
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Died on this day in 1419 aged 58 King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia (my toy,wikipedia). Half-brother of Anne who married Richard II. Wenceslaus was a Weak King and got rather caught up in the Papl Schism.

Born on this day in 1763 to King George III of the United Kingdom and Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Frederick Hanover , Duke of York and Albany (my toy,wikipedia). Frederick outlived his father, but not his elder brother, so was never King although he was his brother's heir, he pursued a military career and appears to have been rather less dissolute than his brothers.
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Died on this day in 1369 aged 55 Philippa of Hainault (my toy,wikipedia). Wife of Edward III. Hainault is in the low countries, and the marriage was intended to make a political alliance. Edward and Philippa had 14 children, including 5 sons who lived to adulthood, which should have meant the succession was nice and secure but mostly meant that the succession was squabled over at interminable length.

Born on this day in 1316 to King Edward II of England and Isabella of France, John of Eltham Plantagenet , Earl of Cornwall (my toy,wikipedia). He seems to be mostly memorable for biffing up the Scots, although they eventually won (or at least won enough to not be conquered)
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Died on this day in 1040 aged 39 King Duncan I of Scotland (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Matilda who married Henry I. This Duncan is the historical basis for the Duncan in Macbeth, although its quite a loose basis really.

Born on this day in 1479 to King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville, Catherine of York (my toy,wikipedia). After Catherine's first husband died when she was in her early thirties she took a vow of chastity instead of (as expected) marrying again.
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Died on this day in 1090 aged 33 Constance of Normandy (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter of William I. As the favourite child of her mother she was married late (I guess her mother wanted her to stick around) but tragically died not long after, possibly poisoned.

Born on this day in 1792 to George Saxe-Meiningen I, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen and Luise of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Adelaide of Saxe Meiningen (my toy,wikipedia), wife of William IV. William made Adelaide ranger of Bushy Park which I mostly think of in the context of Parkrun. The city of Adelaide in Australia is named for her, as are many other places.
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Read:

Grant,Mira (pen-name of Seanan McGuire): Apocalypse Scenario #683 The Box

this is a novella, and not part of any on-going series. I read it mostly because I'm being completest about the author's work, I didn't think it was very interesting tbh.

McGuire, Seanan:
Rosemary and Rue
A Local Habitation
An Artificial Night

I started R&R last week, and, er, got seriously hooked. These books were really really hard to put down. Forced myself not to start on the next one just yet (saving them for vacation reading). October Daye is a changeling private investigator, and boy does she find some interesting things to investigate. The books are urban-fantasy, and fairly dark (with a lot of violence and death).

Reading:
Herbert,Frank: Dune

This was on the list of "SFF books people claim to have read but haven't" and I actually hadn't read it (or claimed to) but now I am. So far it is interesting but not as compulsively readable as Seanan's work. I am aware that there are many sequels - are any of them worth reading?

To Read:
The rest of the October Daye books; Philosopher Kings (the new Jo Walton); Last First Snow (the new Max Gladstone); Pocket Apocalypse (the latest work in Seanan's other urban fantasy series, which clearly I need to read not-adjacent to the Toby Daye books as this will be confusing); a lot of Bujold's fantasy works; the Crusades Through Arab Eyes... is this list long enough? we shall see when I get back from 14 days of vacation that includes nearly 5 whole days of sitting on trains.
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Died on this day in 1469 aged 64 Richard Woodville , 1st Earl Rivers (my toy,wikipedia). Father of Elizabeth Woodville wife of Edward IV. Richard was the chamberlain of the Duke of Bedford who was married to Jacquetta of Luxembourg, after the duke's death Richard married Jacquetta in secret, for which they were fined. He was initially a Lancastrian, but switched sides when it looked like they were loosing. Richard and Jacquetta had at least 13 children, a large family even by standards of the time.

Born on this day in 1762 to King George III of the United Kingdom and Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, King George IV of the United Kingdom (my toy,wikipedia). George IV was Prince Regent before he was King whilst his father was incapacitated with probably-porphyria. He was essentially forced to marry Caroline of Brunswick in order to extract money from his father having run up enormous debts, the marriage was unhappy and they soon separated. George left most of the actual running of the country to his ministers, and mostly focused on drinking to excess.
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Died on this day in 1212 aged 14 Beatrice of Swabia (my toy,wikipedia). Married Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, grandson of Henry II; the marriage was arranged because Beatrice's father and Otto had been fighting over who got to be King of the Germans, she was at the time of the marriage 14, he was 37. Tragically she died only 19 days later of disease.

Born on this day in 1086 to Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Bertha of Savoy, Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor (my toy,wikipedia). Married Matilda, who lost the Kingship of England to Stephen but got it back for her son Henry (by a different father). There was huge controversy over Henry's ivestiture as Emperor because he wanted to be able to appoint bishops and the Pope didn't want that; he kidnapped the Pope, was excomunicated, did a lot of fighting and eventually the matter was mostly settled with the Concordat of Worms. Henry had no legitimate children and left his lands to his nephew.
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Died on this day in 1241 aged 57 Eleanor (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of Henry II. Several marriages were proposed for Eleanor but they didn't work out, and she never married. Her father died when she was young and she was raised mostly by her uncle Richard (the Lionheart); after Richard's death she was imprisoned by John, and remained imprisoned under Henry III, at some point she became a nun.

Born on this day in 1439 to Richard York , 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, Anne of York (my toy,wikipedia). Sister of Edward VI and Richard III; also great-great-grand-daughter of Edward III. She married a staunch Lancastrian, when Edward VI won the throne he was attainted but his lands were given to Anne and their daughter (also Anne). She divorced this husband and married again, this time to a loyal Yorkist.
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Died on this day in 1586 aged 56 Mary Sidney (my toy,wikipedia). Sister of Robert Dudley, favourite of Elizabeth I; and of Guildford Dudley the husband of Jane Grey. She served at Elizabeth's court.

Born on this day in 1387 to King Henry IV of England and Mary de Bohun, King Henry V of England (my toy,wikipedia). Put down the revolt of Owain Glyn Dwr (there's a statue of him in Corwen which we drove through on the way to/from Snowdonia) and continued the 100 years war with France (famously winning at Agincourt), after biffing up the French really quite a lot he was recognised as heir to the throne of France and married Catherine of Valois the French King's daughter. And the then he died 2 years later, on campaign (again) in France, possibly of Dysentry. He was succeeded by his young son Henry VI.
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Died on this day in 1667 aged 49 Frances Aylesbury (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Anne Hyde who married James VII and II.

Born on this day in 1988 to Andrew Windsor , Duke of York and Sarah Ferguson, Princess Beatrice of York (my toy,wikipedia). Memorably had a terrible hat.
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Died on this day in 1385 aged 56 Joan of Kent (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of Edward I, she married her 1st cousin once removed Edward the Black Prince (son of Edward III) and was the mother of Richard II. Joan first married Thomas Holland, secretly and without the King's permission, whilst Thomas was out of the country her family forced her to marry William Montacute. When Thomas came back there was a huge row over this (and William kept Joan prisoner) and Joan wrote to the Pope who said that she was clearly married to Thomas. After Thomas' death Joan married Edward. Joan is often known as "the fair maid of Kent".

Born on this day in 1282 to King Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile, Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (my toy,wikipedia). Elizabeth was briefly married to John V of Holland, but he died and she came back to England and married Humphrey de Bohun and was the great-grandmother of Mary who married Henry IV.
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Died on this day in 1195 aged 66 Henry the Lion (my toy,wikipedia). Married Matilda, daughter of Henry II. Henry was Duke of Saxony, he initially supported hes cousin Frederick Barbarossa in his efforts to take the Imperial Crown, but refused to invade Italy whilst he was busy with a border dispute unless Barbarossa gave him a city... for this insubordination Barbarossa had Henry declared an outlaw and took away all his lands.

Born on this day in 1845 to George , Duke of Argyll and Elizabeth Leveson-Gower, John Campbell , Duke of Argyll (my toy,wikipedia). Married Louise, daughter of Queen Victoria, this was the first time a subject of the crown had married a daughter of the sovereign since Henry VIII's sister Mary married Charles Brandon in 1515. John was Governor General of Canada
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Read: Do Not Taunt the Octopus - Mira Grant. A newsflesh novella, the POV character is Dr Abbey. Yay! More Newsflesh! Not of much interest to anyone who hasn't already read and liked the rest.

Reading: Rosemary and Rue - Seanan McGuire. So far I'm liking this a lot. October Daye is a changeling private investigator, and she gets up to stuff.

Next: More Toby Daye... or I got the new Max Gladstone, so maybe that.
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Died on this day in 1415 aged 40 Richard York , 3rd Earl of Cambridge (my toy,wikipedia). Grandson of Edward III, Grandfather of Edward IV and Richard III. He was beheaded after conspiring against Henry V (the Southampton Plot).

Born on this day in 1199 to King Alfonso IX of Leon and Berengaria of Castile, King Ferdinand III of Castile (my toy,wikipedia). Father of Eleanor who married Edward I. Ferdinand greatly enlarged Castile, and was canonized (I can't quite figure out why) places called "San Fernando" are probably called after him.
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Died on this day in 1265 aged 57 Simon de Montfort (my toy,wikipedia). Married Eleanor, daughter of King John. Lead the revolt against Henry III in the second barons war, and was for a year de-facto King before forces loyal to the King killed him and took the country back. During this time he called two famous parliaments. The first stripped the King of unlimited authority, the second included ordinary citizens from the towns; which leads him to be regarded as the father of parliamentary democracy although this was a long way from what we have now.

Born on this day in 1713 to Ernest Saxe-Hildburghausen I, Duke of Saxe-Hildhurghausen and Sophia ? , Countess of Erbach-Erbach, Princess Elizabeth-Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Charlotte who married George III.
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3rd August (yesterday, oops; also the entry for 1st August was a)mangled and b)a bit wrong and has been edited).

Died on this day in 1568 aged 23 Elizabeth of Valois (my toy,wikipedia). Married Philip II of Spain as his third wife (Mary I was his second), she was 14 and he was much older. Elizabeth was an amateur painter of some skill.

Born on this day in 1491 to William Julich-Heimbach IV, Duke of Julich-Berg and Sibylle of Brandenburg, Maria of Julich-Berg (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Anne of Cleves. Maria inherited the duchy of Julich-Berg which was merged with Cleves on her marriage. She was a strict Catholic, unlike her husband who tried to find a middle path between Protestant and Catholic during the reformation.
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Died on this day in 1100 aged 44 King William II of England (my toy,wikipedia). William died after being shot with an arrow whilst hunting, possibly murdered to put his brother Henry on the throne (in which case it worked), possibly an accident. He kept the Scots out of England but didn't gain control of Scotland and despite invading twice didn't manage to take over Wales.

Born on this day in 1424 to King Rene I of Naples and Isabella Lorraine , Duchess of Lorraine, John Valois-Anjou II, Duke of Anjou (my toy,wikipedia). Brother of Margaret who married Henry VI. John spent much of his reign attempting to get Naples back, which didn't work.
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Died on this day in 1137 aged 55 King Louis VI of France (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Margaret who married Henry the young King, son of Henry II. Louis spent most of his reign fighting various other people who wanted to be in charge of France, including of course the English (who were Normans). He was reasonably successful at this. He died of dysentery because in the 12th century even being King couldn't buy you a cure.

Born on this day in 1713 to Ferdinand II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel and Princess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Charles Guelph I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Caroline who married George IV. Charles tried (unsuccessfully) to improve the finances of the Duchy and when he failed his son took over. He founded what is now the Technical University of Brunswick.
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Died on this day in 1137 aged 55 King Louis VI of France (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Margaret who married King Stephen. Louis spent most of his reign fighting various other people who wanted to be in charge of France, including of course the English (who were Normans). He was reasonably successful at this. He died of dysentery because in the 12th century even being King couldn't buy you a cure.

Born on this day in 1713 to Ferdinand II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel and Princess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Charles Guelph I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Caroline who married George IV. Charles tried (unsuccessfully) to improve the finances of the Duchy and when he failed his son took over. He founded what is now the Technical University of Brunswick.
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Died on this day in 1900 aged 55 Alfred Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (my toy,wikipedia). Son of Queen Victoria. Alfred was in the Navy, beginning as a Midshipman and working his way up to Rear-Admiral (probably that was easier for him than for most Midshipmen...). He succeeded his uncle as Duke of S-C & G as his older brother had renounced his place in the succession for the Dukedom (and would in time be King).

Born on this day in 1601 to Louis Hesse-Darmstadt V, Landrgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and Magdalene of Brandenburg, Anne of Hess Darmstadt (my toy,wikipedia). Grandmother of George I.
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Died on this day in 1504 aged 69 Thomas Stanley (my toy,wikipedia), married (secondly) Margaret Beaufort, mother (by her first husband) of Henry VII. IIRC (sorry, writing in hurry, wiki entry is long) he is the "late" lord Stanley (model, clearly, for the late lord Frey in A Song of Ice and Fire in at least *that* regard, he didn't have loads of wives) being as he like to show up late to battles and join the winning side.

Born on this day in 1832 to Oswald Smith and Henrietta Hodgson, Frances Smith (my toy,wikipedia). Great grand-mother of Elizabeth II. Frances and Oswald are so far my only Smiths.
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Read:
Epic Measures, Jeremy N Smith. A biography of the man who made http://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/ happen. The biography is interesting in parts and dull in others, the data visualization is kinda cool.

Reading:
Do Not Taunt the Octopus. Mira Grant. A Newsflesh Novella. POV Dr Abbey, squee. Only just started

Next:
Well, I bought all the Bujold fantasy (and then renamed the files to have the numbers in them... grrr). And then I saw that the Toby Day series (Seanan) was finally (finally!) available in UK ebook, so I bought all of *that* too. That was a bit of an ebook spending spree... so methinks I shall read, er, some of that next then. Also still got Crusades Through Arab Eyes to read. And should probably clear puppy crap off my ereader and see what else I've got hanging around.
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Died on this day in 1032 aged 46 Constance of Arles (my toy,wikipedia). Grandmother of Matilda, who married William I. Seems to have spent a lot of time quarreling with her sons, which is a lot more dangerous when they have armies than for regular teenage stroppyness.

Born on this day in 1676 to Frederick Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and Magdalena of Saxe-Weissenfels, Frederick II of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (my toy,wikipedia).
Grandfather of George III. Funded his spending habits by renting his army out, unfortunately at one point to France which was at war the the HRE (which Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was part of). Married his first cousin and had 19 children.
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Died on this day in 1158 aged 24 Geoffrey Plantagenet , Count of Nantes (my toy,wikipedia). Son of Matilda, who wasn't quite Queen. He attempted to abduct Eleanor of Aquitaine and force her to marry him (he failed, she later married his older brother Henry II).

Born on this day in 1462 to Charles Valois , Duke of Orleans and Maria of Cleves, King Louis XII of France (my toy,wikipedia). Married his second cousin *twice removed* Mary Tudor (sister of Henry VIII), she was 18, he was 52; she was his third wife. His first wife had been Joan, the daughter of Louis XI, his second Anne the widow of Charles VIII. In order to divorce his first wife he claimed that she was deformed so he couldn't consummate the marriage, or that he was prevented from consummating the marriage by witchcraft... this was presumably all bollocks (he just wanted to marry Anne) but the pope was On His Side (the annulment was eventually granted on the grounds that the marriage had been forced). Joan became a nun. Anne and Louis had no sons, only two daughters, one of whom he married to Francis I his heir presumptive. After Anne's death Louis married Mary in the hope of having a son but died only 3 months later (of over exertion in the bedchamber, allegedly).
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Died on this day in 1693 aged 36 Ulrika of Denmark (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter of the King of Denmark and Norway, Ulrika married the King of Sweden; her brother married Queen Anne. She was kind a charitable, and had almost no political influence since her mother-in-law held almost all of the power and status of Queen and she was sidelined.

Born on this day in 1400 to Thomas le Despenser and Constance of York, Isabel le Despenser (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of Edmund of Langley (one of Edward III's many sons), Grand-mother of Anne Neville who married Richard III. Isabel married (in series, not parallel) two cousins, both called Richard Beauchamp (one the Earl of Worcester, the other the Earl of Warwick), which is rather confusing really. Her two children from her second marriage married two siblings (children of Richard Neville) which is probably incest-by-affinity according to the rules then in use, but apparently these rules weren't abided by.
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Died on this day in 1182 aged 46 Marie Blois I, Countess of Boulogne (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter of King Stephen. Marie was a nun, and eventually Abbess of Romsey, from where she was abducted and forced into marriage by Matthew of Alsace. 10 years later this marriage was annulled, and Marie once again became a nun.

Born on this day in 1797 to Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Caroline of Nassau-Usingen, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter-in-law of George III (she married the Duke of Cambridge when she was 20 and he was 44), grandmother of Mary of Teck who married George V, also great-grand-daughter of George II (incest! yay!). Augusta lived mostly in Hanover, where her husband was viceroy for his brothers who were both Kings of both England and Hanover.
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Died on this day in 1565 aged 20 Carlos (my toy,wikipedia). Son of Philip of Spain who was married to Queen Mary I (but by a different wife). Carlos suffered a severe head injury, and his life was saved by Trepanation, but afterwards his personality was very different. He attempted to flee to the Netherlands but was caught and put under arrest, and he died shortly afterwards.

Born on this day in 1689 to Prince George of Denmark and Queen Anne of England, William Oldenburg , Duke of Gloucester (my toy,wikipedia). William was the only child of Queen Anne to survive infancy, but his health was never good and he died aged only 11.

Wow, that was a depressing sort of a day.
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Died on this day in 1596 aged 70 Henry Carey (my toy,wikipedia). Son of Mary Boleyn, sister of Anne (wife of Henry VIII). Henry was appointed Lieutenant General in charge of putting down the Rising of the North by Queen Elizabeth. It has been speculated (but is unlikely) that Henry was the illegitimate son of Henry VIII.

Born on this day in 1647 to Edward Count Palatine and Anna Gonzaga, Luise of the Palatinate (my toy,wikipedia). Great grand-daughter of James I&VI, although as a Catholic she was excluded from the succession.
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Died on this day in 1274 aged 30 King Henry I of Navarre (my toy,wikipedia). Grandfather of Isabella, who married Edward II. As well as being King of Navarre he was Count of Champagne and Brie (mmmm, brie).

Born on this day in 1210 to King John of England and Isabella of Angouleme, Joan of England (my toy,wikipedia). Joan was intended to marry Hugh X of Lusignan, who her mother had rejected previously, but after the death of John Isabella married Hugh and Joan went back to England and was married to the King of Scotland, she was 10.
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I am still reading Epic Measures, it is quite interesting, mostly a biography of the guy who decided we needed more Evidence for who dies of what than a review of the answers he discovered (so far). It's not as gripping as fiction, which may be why I'm not done with it yet.

Next:I got a Seanan novella, so I'll clearly be reading that next ;-p I need to think about getting books for Holiday Reading, I'm not sure what. The Locus best-of-year list might be a good place to start? Or I thought I might read Bujold's fantasy series, which I haven't read any of, even though I lovelovelove the Vorkosiverse. I've got the new Leckie and the new Walton on pre-order.
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Died on this day in 1612 aged 50 Edward Seymour , Viscount Beauchamp (my toy,wikipedia). Son of Catherine Grey, sister of Jane. Edward Seymour was born in the tower, after his mother was arrested for marrying his father against the wishes of the Queen (his legitimacy was questioned as she could provide no proof of their secret marriage). According to the terms of Henry VIII's will Edward was ahead of James (I & VI) in the succession, since Henry had placed his younger sister ahead, but the English parliament preferred James.

Born on this day in 1824 to Thomas Lyon-Bowes and Charlotte Grimstead, Claude Bowes-Lyon (my toy,wikipedia). Great-grand-father of Elizabeth II.
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Died on this day in 1398 aged 24 Roger Mortimer , 4th Earl of March (my toy,wikipedia). Father of Anne who marries the 3rd Earl of Cambridge (below); grandson of Edward III.

Born on this day in 1375 to Edmund of Langley Plantagenet , 1st Duke of York and Isabella of Castile, Richard York , 3rd Earl of Cambridge (my toy,wikipedia). Grandson of Edward III, Grandfather of Edward IV and Richard III. Richard was not Duke of York because his elder brother was, but since the brother died childless (after him) his son became Duke of York.

And that's two people who were clearly an important part of the dynastic arguments of the Wars of the Roses, which I don't really feel like unpicking right now.
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19th July (I ran a marathon, much too tired to think after)

Died on this day in 1687 aged 48 Laura Martinozzi (my toy,wikipedia). Mother of Mary of Modena, who married James II & VII. She was one of several nieces of Cardinal Mazarrin, for whom he arranged advantageous matches. Laura married the Duke of Modena aged 16.

Born on this day in 1822 to Adolphus Hanover , Duke of Cambridge and Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel, Princess Augusta of Cambridge (my toy,wikipedia) . Grand-daughter of George III. Married her first cousin.
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Died on this day in 1038 aged 18 Gunhilda of Denmark (my toy,wikipedia). Daughter of Cnut and Emma of Normandy (who was also wife of Aethelred the Unready, and sister of the grandfather of William I). She married the Emperor Henry III before he was emperor, and died before he was emperor, whilst on campaign to solve some territorial dispute.

Born on this day in 1501 to King Philip I of Castile and Queen Joanna of Castile, Isabella of Austria (my toy,wikipedia). Niece of Catherine of Aragon. Married the King of Denmark, Sweden and Norway when she was 14. Isabella grew up in the Netherlands, and moved to Denmark when she married. After her husband was deposed he and Isabella went first to the Netherlands and then Germany, attempting to gather support for regaining his throne, she died of illness before any attempt was made.
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Died on this day in 924 aged 50 King Edward the Elder (my toy,wikipedia). Edward extended the control of Wessex over Mercia, Essex and East Anglia

Born on this day in 1626 to Frederick V Elector Palatine and Elizabeth Stuart, the Winter Queen, Henriette of the Palatinate (my toy,wikipedia). Grand-daughter of James the VI and I and Great Aunt of George I. Henriette married the brother of the Prince or Transylvania in April 1651 and died suddenly in September, shortly followed by her husband, presumably that was illness rather than vampires.

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